We’ve seen how grad school serves the student by providing apprentice training and serves the faculty by perpetuating the profession with its values, hierarchies, and myths. But what about the institution? Like fish in the sea, both students and faculty live, move, and breathe within the institution that supports and surrounds them, yet remain largely unconscious of how it operates. It’s an environment that we take for granted. But the economics and politics that govern the “real world” also govern the institution and through it the real lives of students and faculty alike.
Marc Bousquet, who blogs for the Chronicle on labor issues in academia, argues that one’s most employable years as an academician are the years of grad school, when there are plenty of teaching jobs to go around. You would think, he says, that getting the degree would make you more employable, but the reverse is true. Once you get the degree, your chances of finding a job drop sharply, and the older you get, the less employable you are. The reason? Market forces.
Bousquet maintains that grad students provide cheap labor for the university to staff introductory courses that regular faculty don’t want to teach. In addition, doctoral programs enhance the institution’s prestige, thus attracting star faculty as well as grant money. Although the students obviously benefit from this arrangement – they gain knowledge, skills, and entry-level credentials – the profession and the institution benefit more. The university does not take responsibility for the lack of employment opportunities once they have done their job of training. Degree in hand, you are out the door and on your own.
When I went through grad school back in the 1970’s we got no training in how to teach and no professional coaching at all. Happily, much has changed for the better in this regard. At the University of Nevada-Reno, for example, grad students in the Literature and Environment Program receive many hours of instruction in professional skills such as networking, publication, conferencing, and applying for jobs, as well as in teaching, research, and scholarship; the faculty take an active interest in each student and provide intensive coaching. As a result, their students fare comparatively well once they leave. But no amount of such effort can erase the dismal job market figures or alleviate what Bousquet calls the “great depression” from which academia currently suffers, where two thirds of recent PhD’s will fail to secure full-time, tenure track jobs.
Under such conditions, many will settle for part-time or adjunct positions, which do not pay a living wage, others will sidestep into administration, while others may quit the profession entirely and reinvent themselves in some other line of work, anything from law to business to driving a cab. This may well happen to you. But for now, while you are in grad school, the question is how to live a balanced life under the exploitive tradeoffs of apprenticeship. How can you make it work for you? How can you feed your spirit while feeding the rat?
(For more on the ideas and writings of Marc Bousquet, visit his video blog site.)